Esperanto isn’t a “real” language — and by “real” we mean it didn’t develop organically. It is the most famous constructed language, however.
Esperanto was invented over a century ago in Poland by Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof, a Polish medical doctor. Living through the era of Russia’s pogroms and rising anti-Semitism in Poland, Zamenhof was fascinated by the idea of creating a tolerant world, and he dreamed of a day when people could come together.
To make this a possibility, he decided that an international auxiliary language would be the best way to make communication possible between everyone in the world without privileging one native tongue over another. Esperanto is not meant to replace other languages, only to supplement them.
The roots of Esperanto were largely based on Latin, with influences from Russian, Polish, English and German. Of course, this meant it fell short of its intended purpose, because this placed those who spoke Asian (or other pictographic) languages at a disadvantage.
According to some estimates, there are at least two million Esperanto speakers in the world and 2,000 in the UK (as of 2008), and it’s actually currently experiencing a renaissance of sorts.
Xhosa is one of nine Bantu languages officially recognised in the South African constitution. It’s actually the second most-spoken language in the country next to Zulu, and it was the native tongue of freedom fighter, anti-apartheid leader and later South African president Nelson Mandela.
What makes Xhosa especially fascinating is that contains click consonants — here's South African talk show host Trevor Noah showing how to do it...
Xhosa is also a tonal language, so you can convey totally different meanings depending on how you intone the sounds. There are also 18 different kinds of clicks within the language.
They're separated into either dental clicks (with your teeth), lateral clicks (producing air around the sides of your tongue, instead of down the middle) and post-alveolar clicks (where the tongue touches near or the back of your alveolar ridge). That’s a lot of additional sounds to the untrained ear!